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Mental Health Treatment Facility

Compiled by the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA), mental health treatment facilities provide mental health treatment services. They include state-funded organizations, facilities administered by the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs, and licensed private for-profit and non-profit facilities.

Multi-Specialty Community Based Outpatient Clinic (MS CBOC)

A multi-specialty CBOC is a VA-owned, VA-leased, mobile, or contract clinic that offers both primary and mental health care and two or more specialty services physically on site. Access to additional specialty services may be offered by referral or telehealth. These clinics may offer support services, such as pharmacy, laboratory, and x-ray. The clinic may be operational from 1 to 7 days per week. These clinics are permitted to provide invasive procedures with local anesthesia or minimal sedation, but not with moderate sedation or general anesthesia (see VHA Directive 2006-023). The establishment of a new multi-specialty CBOC can only be approved by the Secretary, with Congressional notification consistent with 38 U.S.C. 8119(b) (2), (3), and (4).

National Health Service Corps (NHSC)

The NHSC program aids organizations in HPSAs in attracting the necessary medical, dental and mental health providers to meet the health care needs of the shortage area. The scholarship and loan repayment programs are awarded to providers who fulfill an obligation to serve a HPSA with a sufficiently high shortage. The Bureau of Health Workforce (BHW) oversees the program for the Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA). For more information see:


Opioids are highly-addictive, powerful pain-reducing medications that include oxycodone, hydrocodone, and morphine, among others.

Other Outpatient Services (OOS) Sites

Other Outpatient Services Sites are sites in which Veterans receive services that do not meet the criteria listed above to be classified as a CBOC or HCC. Many of the services provided at these sites are contacts made by VA or VHA personnel to provide information, social services, homelessness outreach services, activities to increase Veteran awareness of benefits and services, and support services, such as those provided in Vet Centers. Other services could be more clinical in nature, in which clinical services are provided to remote areas through a Telehealth clinic or other arrangement. If any other services are provided in this venue (external to a VA clinic or facility), they must be associated with, attached to, and coordinated by a health care delivery site located in a clinic or facility.

Part D Opioid Prescribing Rate

The number of Medicare Part D opioid claims divided by overall Part D prescription claims, then multiplied by 100.

Penetration Rate

The ratio of patients (from health centers with 11 or more patients in that ZCTA) to a matching sub-population (such as the total population or low-income population). For example, for each ZCTA the number of reported health center patients is divided by the number of low-income or total residents. Note: Because the UDS does not distinguish the income of health center patients at the ZIP Code level, this measure is not perfect, particularly when dividing the number of health center patients by the number of low-income (as not all health center patients are low-income below 200% FPL). But because it is known that approximately 91.5% of health center patients nationally are low-income, the basic utility of the calculation in assessing the role of health centers in serving the community is not changed. Such penetration rate measures should be considered the starting point for exploring potential unmet need, not the final answer.

Percent Low-Income (Population below 200% FPL)

Label: Pop: Low-Income (%)

Where it's found: Explore Service Area Tool: Data Table, Additional Population Data and Indicators
                        Main Maps Tool: Population Data, Poverty Level
                        Population Indicators

Data source(s):   American Community Survey (ACS) five-year estimates for ZCTAs2011-2015

Next Planned Update: February 2018

Data provider:   John Snow, Inc.

What it shows: Displays the percentage of the population for whom poverty is determined that lives below 200% of the Federal Poverty Level (FPL) (otherwise known as the 'low-income' population).

Primary Care Association (PCA)

A Primary Care Association is a regional, state, or local organization which works in close concert with, and represents the interests of, nonprofit community clinics and health centers and advocates for the health needs of their distinctive populations and geographic areas, most importantly those who face barriers to care due to poverty, language, or geographic isolation.

Primary Care Clinic (PC CBOC)

Primary care CBOCs are VA-owned, VA-leased, mobile, or contract clinics that offer both medical (physically on site) and mental health care (either physically on site or by telehealth) and may offer support services such as pharmacy, laboratory, and x-ray. The clinic may be operational 1 to 7 days per week. Access to specialty care is not provided on site, but may be available through referral or telehealth. A Primary care CBOC often provides home-based primary care (HBPC) and home telehealth to the population it serves to meet the primary care and mental health needs of Veterans who have difficulty accessing clinic-based care. These clinics have access to a higher level of care within a VHA network of care. Primary care in VA includes both medical and mental health care services, as they are inseparable in providing personalized, proactive, patient-centered health care. The establishment of a new primary care CBOC can only be approved by the Secretary of Veterans Affairs, with Congressional notification.

Primary Care Office (PCO)

A Primary Care Office is a state government entity, often under the purview of the state Department of Health, which works to improve access to care for underserved populations. PCOs work with the various bureaus of the Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA) to promote the health center program, establish HPSA designations and find suitable locations for placement of NHSC scholar and loan repayors.

Public Use Microdata Areas (PUMA)

Public Use Microdata Areas (PUMAs) are statistical geographic areas defined for the dissemination of Public Use Microdata Sample (PUMS) data. They are also used for disseminating American Community Survey (ACS) and Puerto Rico Community Survey period estimates. These files contain records for a sample of housing units with information on the characteristics of each unit and each person in it. While preserving confidentiality (by removing identifiers), these microdata files permit users with special data needs to prepare virtually any tabulation. PUMS files are available from the American Community Survey and the Decennial Census.

Residential Care Site (VA Domiciliary or Mental Health RRTPs) (Stand-Alone)

Residential care is defined as encounters between Veterans and providers within the VA health care system that require an overnight stay in residential bed sections. (1) Each point of service receives a residential care rating within the VHA site classifications based on the services provided at that location; and (2) Although some residential care is also classified as extended care, two programs are specifically classified as “residential care” in the site classification: Residential Rehabilitation and Domiciliary Care (most residential rehabilitation programs are types of domiciliary care). Specifically, a Mental Health Residential Rehabilitation Treatment Program (RRTP) provides residential rehabilitative and clinical care to eligible Veterans who have a wide-range of problems, illnesses, or rehabilitative care needs, which can be medical, psychiatric, SUD, homelessness, vocational, educational, or social services. The term RRTP refers to the bed category and includes the following programs: Domiciliary Residential Rehabilitation Treatment Programs (DRRTP), Domiciliary Care for Homeless Veterans (DCHV), Health Maintenance Domiciliary, Psychosocial Residential Rehabilitation Treatment Programs (PRRTP), PTSD Residential Rehabilitation Treatment Program (PTSD-RRTP), Substance Abuse Residential Rehabilitation Treatment Program (SARRTP), and CWT-Transitional Residence (TR). Note: These sites are stand-alone, and do not include the MHRRTP/DRRTP programs co-located within a VAMC.

Retail Opioid Dispensing Rate

Retail opioid prescriptions, either an initial prescription or a refill, dispensed per 100 persons at a retail pharmacy.

Rural Health Clinic (RHC)

The Rural Health Clinic program strives to be the major provider for primary care services for Medicaid and Medicare patients in rural communities which tend to have health disparities due to geographic isolation and low physician density. RHCs can be public, private, or non-profit entities. All RHCs are eligible for facility HPSA designation and the federal funding that comes from that designation, but due to their patient population, RHCs’ main funding sources are enhanced reimbursement rates for providing Medicaid and Medicare services to rural populations. As such, RHCs must be located in underserved rural areas, as designated by HRSA, and must employ nonphysician practitioners (i.e., physician assistants or nurse practitioners) alongside physicians as part of a team-based approach to patient care. For more information, see:

Share of Patients

The percent of total health center patients from the specified ZCTA that were served by the specified health center.

Substance Abuse and Addiction Treatment Facility

Compiled by the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA), substance abuse and addiction treatment facilities must have state or national licensure/accreditation/approval to provide substance abuse treatment, OR staff who hold specialized credentials to provide substance abuse treatment services, OR authorization to bill third party payers for substance abuse treatment services.

Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA)

The Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA), an agency of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, aims to reduce the impact of substance abuse and mental illness on communities.

Thematic Map

A thematic map shows information about a “theme” or topic such as population data and differs from a general reference map because it does not just show natural features like rivers, cities, political subdivisions and highways. All thematic maps use maps with boundaries and many add other landmarks for reference.

Uniform Data System (UDS)

The Uniform Data System is the specific data collection and reporting requirements for Health Center Program awardees and look-alikes developed by the Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA) to track the patient population and effectiveness of the health care services of the Health Center Program. Each year, Health Center Program awardees and look-alikes report on their performance using the measures defined in the Uniform Data System (UDS). HRSA offers manuals, webinars, and trainings online and at various state/regional/national meetings, and other technical assistance resources to assist health centers in collecting and submitting their data. For more information, see:

VA Hospital

A VA Hospital is any VA-owned, staffed, and operated facility providing acute inpatient and/or rehabilitation services.

VA Medical Center (VAMC)

A VA medical center is a VA point of service that provides at least two categories of care (inpatient, outpatient, residential, or institutional extended care).

Vet Center

A Vet Center is a community-based counseling facility under the direct supervision of the Readjustment Counseling Service (RCS), within the Department of Veterans Affairs. Vet Centers provide professional readjustment counseling, community education, outreach to special populations, brokering of services with community agencies, and access to links between the Veteran and VA.

ZIP Code Tabulation Area (ZCTAs)

ZIP Code Tabulation Areas (ZCTAs) are generalized representations of U.S. Postal Service ZIP Codes. Currently, each ZCTA is built by aggregating Census 2010 blocks, whose addresses use a ZIP Code, into a ZCTA which gets that ZIP Code assigned as its ZCTA code. While in most instances the ZCTA code equals the ZIP Code for an area, not all ZIP Codes have their own ZCTA. For more information, see

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